In recent years, the conflicts in many Near Eastern countries have renewed attention to the vulnerability of museums, archaeological sites, and to broader issues of cultural heritage. This has led numerous institutes engaged in the traditional practice of archeology to increase their focus on the field of cultural heritage. Several small and large projects have since arisen, which aim at either safeguarding and preserving the cultural heritage of the region, raising awareness, collecting data, and/or empowering local actors. While archaeologists have been traditionally trained to excavate, a subtractive process that is both destructive and irreversible, many are now focused on the safeguarding of the physical fabric of archaeological remains from loss and depletion. This has inevitably led to the appearance of several debates and conflicts. The purpose of this session is to give a platform to those archaeologists and historians who have seen their careers move towards the field of cultural heritage in order to present their projects, ideas, concepts, and even conceptual questions such as: how does heritage develop as a cultural, social, and political process; nationalism or inter-nationalism; political ideology colonialism and policy; warfare; tourism, ownership and commodification; tangible and intangible heritage; digitalization; the politics of archives and politics of objectification; and memory and memorialization.