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Ms. Angela Greco - "L’amministrazione dei giardini (ĝeškiri6) a Ĝirsu durante il periodo neosumerico (Administration of Gardens (ĝeškiri6) in Ĝirsu during the Neo-Sumerian Period)"

The dissertation covers the organization and administration of gardens, Sumerian ĝeškiri6, in the province of Ĝirsu during the Neo-Sumerian period (ca. 2112–2004 v. Chr.). The gardens, including palm gardens and orchards, were an important economic source for Mesopotamian agriculture in providing their resources. Garden administration followed a strict hierarchy, consisting of 1) the base of skilled workers, a-bala and du3-a-TAR, or irrigular, general workers assigned to care for the gardens; 2) the mid-level um-mi-a, responsible for yields and for supervizing workers within their assigned areas; 3) the upper-level santana, responsible for the circulation of external goods needed for the gardens within their areas of responsibility as well as for the circulation of garden products which their areas produced and then consigned to the central administration. In contrast to the usual agricultural division according to temple or palace households, the garden administration was usually subdivided by district.


This information is supplemented by evidence from royal propagandistic texts. The word um-mi-a can be translated as "expert". According to the Šulgi Hymn A (ll. 28–33), the king staffed his gardens with specialists. The um-mi-a thus reflected the royal desire for the greatest possible efficiency. In contrast, the santana, as reflected in the so-called Codex Ur-Namma (ll. 22–29), acted as royal middlemen, through whom the kings brought the gardens and their yields under their control in opposition to the temple households.